Glossary of Industrial Terms

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abrasion – external damage to a hose assembly caused by its being rubbed on a foreign object; a wearing away by friction

accelerated life test –  a method designed to approximate in a short time the deteriorating effects obtained under normal service conditions.

adapter, adaptor – 1 | fittings of various sizes and materials used to change an end fitting from one type to another type or one size to another. (i.e., a male JIC to male pipe adapter is ofter attached to a female JIC to create a male end union fitting); 2 | the grooved portion of a cam & groove coupling.

adhesion – 1 | the strength of bond between cured rubber surfaces at an interface by a force less than specified in a test method; 2 | the seperation of two adjoining surfaces due to service conditions.

ambient temperature – the temperature of the atmosphere or medium surrounding an object under consideration.

anchor – restraint applied to eliminate motion and restrain forces

angular displacement – displacement of two part defined by an angle

ANSI – American National Standards Institute

anti-static – see static conductive

application working pressure – unique to customer’s application. See pressure, working

application – the service conditions that determine how hose assembly will be used

armor – a protective cover slid over and affixed to a hose assembly used to prevent over bending or for the purpose of protectin hose from severe extrenal environmental conditions such as hot materials, abrasion or traffic.

assembly – a general term referring to any hose coupled with end fittings of any style attached to one or both ends.

attachment – the method of securing and end fittings to a hose (e.g., banding, crimping, swaging, or screw-together-2piece or 3-piece-style-reusable fittings.)

axial movement –  compression or elongation along the longitudinal axis.

chemical compatibility – the relative degree to which a material may contact another without corrosion, degradation or adverse change of properties.

chemical resistance – the ability of particulat polymer, rubber compound, or metal to exhibit minimal physical and or chemical property changes when in contact with one or more chemicals for specified length of time, at specified concentrations, pressure and temperature.

clamp – see hose clamp

coefficient of friction – a relative measure of the surface lubricity.

collar – the portion of a fittings that is compressed by swaging or crimping to seal the hose onto the fittings barbs and create a permanent attachement; also called a ferrule.

compound – the mixture of rubber or plastic and other materials, which are combined to give the desired properties when, used in the manufacture of a product.

compression fittings – see fittings | coupling compression

concentricity – the uniformity of hose wall thickness as measured in a plane normal to the axis of the hose.

conductive – the ability to transfer electrical potential

configuration – the combination of fittings on a particular assembly.

copolymer – a blend of two polymers

core – the inner portion of a hose usually reffering to the material in contact with the medium.

corrosion – the process of material degradation by chemical or electrochemical means.

corrosion resistance – ability of metal component to resist oxidation.

coupling – a frequently used alternative term for fitting.

cover – the outer component usually intended to protect the carcass of a product.

CPE – chlorinated polyethylene, a rubber elastomer.

crimp diameter – the distance across opposite flats after crimping.

crimp | crimping – a fittings attachement method utilizing a number of fingers or dies mounted in a radial configuration. The dies close perpendicular to the hose and fitting axis, compressing the collar, ferrule, or sleeve around the hose.

CSM – chlorosulfonated polyethylene

cut resistant – having that characteristic of withstanding the cutting action of sharp object.

flat spots – flat areas on the surface of cured hose caused by deformation during vulcanization.

flow rate – a volume of media being conveyed in a given time period.

fluid – a gas or liquid medium.

free lenght – the lineal measurement of hose between fittings our couplings.

hardness – resistance to indentation.

heat resistance – the property or abolity ro resist the deteriorating effects of elevated temperatures.

helical wire armor | spring guard – an abrasion resistance device.

helix – a shape formed by spiraling a wire or other reinforcement around the cylindrical body of a hose; typically used in suction hose.

hoop strength – the relative measure of a hose resistance to collapse of the diameter perpendiculat to the hose axis.

hose – a flexible conduit consisting of a tube, reinforcement, and usually an outer cover.

hose assembly – see assembly

hose clamps – a device used to hold a hose onto a coupling

hydrostatic testing – the use of liquid pressure to test a hose or hose assembly for leakage, twisting, and or hose change-in-lenght

lay – the direction of advance of any point in a strand for one complete turn; the amount of advance of any point in a strand for one complete turn.

light reistance – the ability to retard the

low temperature flexibility – the ability of a hose to be flexed, bent or bowed at low teperatures without loss of serviceability.

LPG, LP Gas – the abbreviation for liquefied petroleum gas.

MAWP – maximum allowable working pressure.

mandrel built – a hose fabricated and or vulcanized on a mandrel.

mandrel | flexible – a long round, smooth rod capable of being coiled in a small diameter. It is used for support during the manufacture of certain types of hose.

mandrel | rigid – a non-flexible cylindrical form on which a hose may be manufactured.

mass flow rate – the mass of fluid per unit of time passing through a given cross-section of a flow passage in a given direction.

mechanical fitting – a fitting attached to a hose, which can ne disassembled and used again

mender – a fitting or device used to join two sections of hose


O.D. –  the abbreviation for outside diameter.

OE | OEM – original equipment manufacturer

oil resistance – the ability of the materials to withstand exposure to oil

o-ring fitting – see fitting | coupling, O-ring

oxidation – the reaction of oxygen on a material, usually evidenced by a change in the appearance or feel of the surface or by a change in physical properties.

reinforcement – the strengthening memebers,consisting of either of either fabric, cord, and/or metal, of a hose. See ply.

SAE – Society of Automotive Engineers

sampling – a process of selecting a portion of a quantity for testing or inspection, selected without regard to quality.

shank – that portion of a fitting, which is inserted into the bore of a hose.

shell – see ferrule

skive – the removal of a short length of cover and/or tube to permit the attachment of a fitting directly over the hose reinforcement.

socket – the external member or portion of a hose fitting, commonly used in describing screw-together reusable fittings.

spiral – a method of applying reinforcement in which there is not interlacing between individuals strands of the reinforcement.

splice – a method of joining two sections of hose

spring guard – a helically wound component applied internally or externally to a hose assembly, used for strain relief, abrasion resistant, collapse resistant.

static conductive – having the capability of furnishing a path for a flow of static electricity.

surge – a rapid and transient rise in pressure

swage – the method of fitting attachment that incorporates a set die halves designed to progressively reduce the collar or ferrule diameter to the required finish dimension by mechanically forcing the fitting into the mating die.

band – 1 | a metal ring that is welded, shrunk, or cast on the outer surface of a hose nipple or fittings; 2 | a thin strip of metal uses as a non-bolted clamp. See hose clampo

barb – the portion of a fitting (coupling) that is inserted into the hose, usually comprised of two or more radial serrations or ridges designed to form a redundant seal between the hose and fittings.

barbed and ferruled fittings – a two piece hose fitting comprised of a barbed insert (nipple), normally with peripheral ridges or backward-slanted barbs, for inserting into a hose and a ferrule, usually crimped or swaged.

bend radius – the radius of a bent section of hose measured to the innermost surface of the curved portion.

bend radius, dynamic – the radius at which constant or continuous flexing occurs.

bending force – an amount of stress required to induce bending around a specified radius anf hence, a measure of stiffness.

bleeding – surface exudation. See bloom

blister – a raised area on the surface or a separation between layers usually creating a void or air-filled space in a vulcanized article.

bloom –  a discoloration or change in appearance of the surface of a rubber product cause by the migration of a liquid or solid to the surface, (e.g. sulfur bloom, wax bloom).

body wire – normally a round or flat wire helix embedded in the hose wall to increase strenght or to resist collapse.

bore – an internal cylindrical passageway, as of a tube, hose or pipe

braid – the woven portion of a hose used as reinforcement to increase pressure rating and add hoop strength. Various materials such as polyester, cotton or metal wire are used. A hose may have one or more braids, outside or between layers of hose material.

braid sleeve | ring | ferrule – a ring made from tube or metal strip placed over the ends of a braided hose to contain the braid wires for attachment of fittings and ferrule, and to immobilize heat affected corrugations.

braided ply – a layer of braided reinforcement

brass  – a family of copper | zinc alloys

brazing – a process of joining metals using a non-ferrous filler metal having a melting point that is lower than the “parent metals” to be joined.

bronze – an alloy of copper, tin and zinc

butt weld – process in which the edges or ends of metal sections are butted together and joined by welding.

deduct length – the amount of fitting lenght deducted from a hose to result in the desired finished assebly lenght.

design pressure – see application working pressure and pressure, working

die – a tool used to swage or crimp a fitting onto a hose. Swage dies usually consist of two halves machined to a predetermined diameters, designed fo a specific hose type and size. A crimp die set is typically six to eight “fingers” designed for infinite diameter settings within a range or preset to a specific diameter for a given hose type and size.

DOT – Department of Transportation

dynamic bend radius – see bend radius, dynamic

eccentric wall – a wall of varying thickness.

elastic limit – the limiting extent to which a body may be deformed and yet return to its original shape after removal of the deforming force.

elastomer – any one of a group of polyomeric materials, usually designed thermoset, such as natural rubber, or thermoplastic, which will soften with application of heat.

EPDM – Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer; an elastomer.

exothermic – releasing heat

extruded | extrusion – forced through the shaping die of an extruder; extrusion may have a solid or hollow cross section.

fabric impression – impression formed on the rubber surface during vulcanization by contact with fabric jacket or wrapper.

FDA – United States Food and Drug Administration

ferrule – a metal cylined places over a hose end to affix the fitting to the hose. See braid sleeve, interlocking ferrule, and sleeve.

fire sleeve – slip-on or integrally extruded sleeve used to retard the effects of fire in certain applications; most ofter made with silicone and or ceramic fiber.

fittings | couplings – a deivce attached to the end of the hose to facilitate connection. The following is only a partial list of types of fittings available:

galvanic corrosion – corrosion that occurs on the less noble of two dissimilar metals in direct contact with each other in an electrolyte, such as water, sodium chloride in solution, sulfuric acid, etc.

GPM – gallons per minute

guide (for piping) – a device that supports a pipe radially in all directions, but directs movement.

impression – a design formed during vulcanization in the surface of a hose by a method of transfer, such as fabric impression or molded impression.

innercore – the innermost layer of a hose; the hose material in contact with the medium.

insert – optional term for nipple. See nipple

IPT – iron pipe threads; a reference to NPT or NPTF

ISO – International Organization for Standardization

jacket – a seamless tubular braided or woven ply generally on the outside of a hose

JIC – see fitting | coupling – JIC

kinking – a temporary or pemanent distortion of the hose induced by bending beyond the minimum bend radius.

nipple – the internal member or portion of a hose fitting.

nitrile rubber – a family of acrylonitrile elastomers used extensively for industrial hose.

nominal – a size indicator for reference only

non-conductive – the inability to transfer an electrical charge.

NPT | NPTF – abbrevation for national pipe threads

nylon – s family of polyamide materials

performance test – a test in which the product is used under actual service conditions.

pin pricked – perforations through the cover of a hose to vent permeating gases.

pitch – the distance from one point on a helix to the corresponding point on the next turn of the helix, measure parallel to the axis.

platis – an individual group of reinforcing braid wires, strands.

ply – an individual layer in hose construction

polymer – a macromolecular material formed by the chemical combination of monomers, having either the same or different chemical compositions.

pressure drop – the measure of pressure reduction or loss over a specific length of hose.

pressure | burst – the pressure at which rupture occurs.

pressure | gauge – relative pressure between inside and outside of an assembly.

pressure | working – the maximum pressure to which a hose will be subjected, including the momentary surges in pressure, which can occur during service.

psi – pounds per square inch

PTFE – polytetrafluoroethylene, a high molecular weight fluoroplastic polymer with carbon atoms shielded by fluorine atoms having very strong inter atomic bonds, giving it chemical inertness.

PVC – polyvinyl chloride. A low cost thermoplastic material typically used in the manufacture of industrial hoses.

tube – the innermost continuous all-rubber or plastic element of a hose.

tubing – a non-reinforced, homogeneous conduit, generally of circular cross-section.